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22. See the dialogue in bankruptcy 2. 23. “Shamanism,” that is itself a contested notion, is well mentioned through Bowie (2000: a hundred ninety– 218). observe additionally Morris 2006: 1–43. Kingsley (1995: forty, 225–27) sees the inﬂuence of north-Asiatic shamanism within the fragments of Empedocles, particularly in his declare that his disciple will how you can retrieve the existence strength of a lifeless guy from Hades. besides the fact that that could be, it really is hugely not going that Empedocles referred to as himself a mantis, regardless of the inference that later writers made of his poetry (see Diog. Laert. eight. 61–62 = Diels-Kranz F 112). See additional Dodds 1951: 135–78. T h e Rol e a n d I m age of t h e S e e r . eighty one The fullest, so much authoritative, and so much specific account of a seer being anticipated to obtain strong omens and evade undesirable ones came about in four hundred b. c. and is pronounced by way of Xenophon in his Hellenica (3. three. 4). 24 even supposing Xenophon was once now not a player during this incident, he presently thereafter turned a conﬁdant of an individual who used to be, King Agesilaus of Sparta. whilst Agesilaus used to be nonetheless within the ﬁrst yr of his reign, as he was once making one of many average sacriﬁces on behalf of town, “the seer acknowledged to him that the gods have been revealing a conspiracy regarding the main poor issues. whilst Agesilaus sacriﬁced a moment time, the seer acknowledged that the sufferers published issues nonetheless extra poor. And while he sacriﬁced a 3rd time, the seer acknowledged: ‘Oh Agesilaus, the indicators seem to me simply as though we have been within the very presence of our enemies. ’ After this they sacriﬁced either to the gods who steer clear of evils and to those that convey defense, and whilst with difﬁculty that they had got strong omens, they ceased. inside ﬁve days of the tip of the sacriﬁce anyone introduced details to the ephors [the govt ofﬁcers of the Spartan meeting] a few conspiracy and denounced Cinadon because the chief. ” it really is somewhat confusing why Xenophon thinks that the apotropaic sacriﬁces have been profitable after they didn't, strictly conversing, steer clear of the arriving into being of an important conspiracy opposed to the total Spartan social and political approach. i guess that Xenophon took the favorable indicators as indicating now not that the plot could fail to materialize, yet that the danger to the country will be triumph over. have been the gods then easily caution Agesilaus upfront in order that he might arrange himself, or have been additionally they giving him the chance, through the use of apotopaic and saving sacriﬁces, to realize their counsel in avoiding the chance? might be neither Xenophon nor Agesilaus nor the unnamed seer gave a lot notion to ﬁne theological differences. It in basic terms made experience to aim to win the want of the gods within the manner that Greek faith deemed acceptable and efﬁcacious—that is, via prayer and sacriﬁce. The gods either warned mortals of imminent risks and will be persuaded to change the result of these hazards. still, it used to be basically famous in Greek tradition that there have been strict limits on a seer’s skill to divert catastrophe via ritual appeasement of divine powers. As Solon wrote, “another guy lord Apollo, who works from afar, has made a seer, and if the gods are with him, he sees evil coming upon a guy.